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CSI: The Age of the Bloodstain
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Amino acid residues give away bloodstain’s age
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Our approach is based on a fact that the fluorescence lifetime of tryptophan — the major the fluorophore.
Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide. Age estimation of bloodstains is of importance to a forensic investigation in that it gives an indication as to when the crime was committed and can discern whether the bloodstains resulted from a single event or were deposited on different occasions. To date, there is no established method for determining the age of bloodstains and therefore this work investigates the potential of using fluorescence lifetime measurements to determine the time since the deposition of bloodstains.
Experiments were carried out using human blood obtained from 6 donors. The results showed a decrease in the fluorescence lifetime within the first 91 hours of deposition, after which the fluorescence lifetime plateaued, illustrating a clear distinction between fresh and old bloodstains. Saliva stains aged with the same parameters and conditions as blood showed no change in the fluorescence lifetime, suggesting that this phenomenon only takes place in blood and not saliva.
Further analysis on test stains revealed that measuring the fluorescence lifetime over a period of time provides information on their freshness and can therefore form the basis of a valuable bloodstain dating technique. If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from it in a third party non-RSC publication you must formally request permission using Copyright Clearance Center.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Achilefu and M. Achilefu , M. Berezin Published Chemistry, Medicine Chemistry.
/]. Keywords: fluorescence lifetime; forensic science; pulse laser; writing ink; altered document. TRF spectra can be also measured using an additional spectrometer. leum accelerants,26,27 date bloodstains,28 etc.
Numerous small spots of blood were found on his shirt. The examiner of the case, Dr. Letheby, one of the pioneers of forensic spectral analysis of blood, declined to assign a date to the bloodstains on the shirt and connect the defendant to the murder. This statement outweighed the other evidence, the man was sent free, and the crime known as the Eltham murder remains a mystery. These two examples illustrate the important role of bloodstain dating in criminal justice. In the last two hundred years, criminal investigators explored a variety of approaches to establish a reliable quantitative method, from the evaluation of bloodstain colour as shown in TOC, microscopic analysis of red corpuscles and a water solubility scale in the middle of the 19th century [ 3 ] , to electrochemistry [ 4 ] , electron paramagnetic resonance [ 5 ] , atomic force microscopy [ 6 ] , polymer chain reaction [ 7 ] , and optical spectroscopy [ 8 ] in the 21st century.
Herein, we demonstrate a novel method for bloodstain dating based on the fluorescence lifetime of blood.
WO2017020000A1 – Spectroscopic methods for body fluid age determination – Google Patents
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Herein, we demonstrate a novel method for bloodstain dating based on the fluorescence lifetime of blood. We show that the intrinsic fluorescence lifetime quickly.
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In summary, fluorescence lifetime was shown to be a promising technique to evaluate the age of a bloodstain in a crime scene within the first week. The method is fast ca. The major improvement of the technique will come from the development of the lifetime imaging technique, in which the average fluorescence lifetime is evaluated across the region of interest in the bloodstain.
Such an approach will minimize the problems with sampling and provide more accurate results.
Louis, Missouri , USA. Toggle navigation. Login Categories Journals. Publications by authors named “Kevin Guo”. The physical activity and nutrition-related corporate social responsibility initiatives of food and beverage companies in Canada and implications for public health. Epub Jun 9. View Article. Frailty and associated prognosis among older emergency department patients with suspected infection: A prospective, observational cohort study.
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Dating bloodstains with fluorescence lifetime measurements
Despite various methods and progress in related bloodstain techniques , determining the age of a bloodstain at a crime scene is one of the greatest and oldest challenges in forensic science. Mikhail Berezin and co-workers, Washington University School of Medicine, USA, have developed a novel method to evaluate the age of a bloodstain in a crime scene within the first week.
The method is fast ca. Therefore, the time-related degradation of proteins in blood reflects the blood age. This approach minimizes problems with sampling and provides more accurate results. Please note that to comment on an article you must be registered and logged in.
Contents: Journal Highlight: Dating bloodstains with fluorescence lifetime measurements; CSI: The Age of the Bloodstain; Related Articles.
Knowing the time since deposition TSD of an evidentiary bloodstain is highly desired in forensics, yet it can be extremely complicated to accurately determine in practice. Although there have been numerous attempts to solve this problem using a variety of different techniques, currently, no established, well-accepted method exists. Raman spectroscopy, along with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy 2D CoS and statistical modeling, was used to analyze fresh bloodstains at ten time points under ambient conditions.
The 2D CoS results indicate a high correlation between several Raman bands and the age of a bloodstain. A regression model was built to provide quantitative predictions of the TSD, with cross-validated root mean squared error and R 2 values of 0. Additionally, all bloodstains were confirmatively identified as blood by comparing the experimentally measured spectra to multidimensional body fluid spectroscopic signatures of blood, saliva, semen, sweat, and vaginal fluid.
These results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy can be used as a nondestructive analytical tool for discriminating between bloodstains on the scale of hours to days. This approach shows promise for immediate practical use in the field to predict the TSD with a high degree of accuracy. Effective forensic crime scene processing relies on a rapid, informative, and high-throughput investigation starting from evidence discovery and collection at the scene all the way through to analysis in the laboratory [ 1 ].
Especially in cases of violent crimes, such as assaults, murders, or homicides, blood can provide investigators with very critical information [ 2 — 4 ]. Knowing the age, or time since deposition TSD , of a bloodstain can assist investigations in at least two ways: it can establish when a crime occurred and it can discriminate bloodstains that relate to the crime from those that are extraneous.
WO2009130580A1 – Apparatus and method for dating a body sample – Google Patents
The present invention relates to an apparatus and method for dating a body sample, preferably, but not exclusively, a sample of body fluid, such as blood, which may be external to the body, for example, having caused stains on an external substrate, such as a floor, wall, etc. It is well known that dating of both external blood stains and internal bruising is a useful forensic technique to determine when a particular injury was caused to a person.
In the one case, the injury would have been such that the skin was punctured and blood was spilt and in the other case no blood was spilt externally, but bruising, to a greater or lesser extent was caused.
“Dating bloodstains with fluorescence lifetime measurements. On Measuring the Volume of very small Drops of Blood and Correlation of this.
Lydia Sauer, Christopher B. Komanski, Alexandra S. Vitale, Eric D. Hansen, Paul S. Fluorescence decays were detected in two spectral channels — nm; — nm to determine fluorescence lifetimes of endogenous fluorophores in their specific spectral emission ranges. Blood samples from a healthy subject and a patient with PED were investigated in a quartz cuvette. Additionally, ex vivo studies of human blood help to better interpret FLIO images. Purchase this article with an account.
Jump To Lydia Sauer ; Christopher B. Komanski ; Alexandra S. Vitale ; Eric D. Hansen ; Paul S. Correspondence: Paul S.
Studies of inactivation mechanism of non-enveloped icosahedral virus by a visible ultrashort pulsed laser. Virology journal. Automatic segmentation of fluorescence lifetime microscopy images of cells using multiresolution community detection–a first study. Journal of microscopy. Probing distance-dependent plasmon-enhanced near-infrared fluorescence using polyelectrolyte multilayers as dielectric spacers.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl.
Dating bloodstains with fluorescence lifetime measurements. Authors: Kevin Guo Near-infrared fluorescence lifetime pH-sensitive probes. Authors: Mikhail Y.
This statement outweighed the other evidence, the man was sent free, and the crime known as the Eltham murder remains a mystery. These two examples illustrate the important role of bloodstain dating in criminal justice. In the last two hundred years, criminal investigators explored a variety of approaches to establish a reliable quantitative method, from the evaluation of bloodstain colour as shown in TOC, microscopic analysis of red corpuscles and a water solubility scale in the middle of the 19th century [ 3 ] , to electrochemistry [ 4 ] , electron paramagnetic resonance [ 5 ] , atomic force microscopy [ 6 ] , polymer chain reaction [ 7 ] , and optical spectroscopy [ 8 ] in the 21st century.
Herein, we demonstrate a novel method for bloodstain dating based on the fluorescence lifetime of blood. We show that the intrinsic fluorescence lifetime quickly and reliably reports the blood age. In May , a young woman was found severely injured in the Eltham district of London, her head brutally smashed with a plaster’s hammer.